COVID-19, influenza, and bronchiolitis: How will pathogen behavior change in 2023?

Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Seasonal Influenza Before Coronavirus on Number of People Affected in 2023/Document

has exceeded 3 years since first described, but The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is still spreading around the world. Other pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus and seasonal influenza viruses, have accelerated their spread, and the order in which each pathogen affects humans has shifted.

Coronavirus 2020 and 2021 SARS-CoV-2 is the main respiratory virus. In those years, different measures to restrict the movement of people within and between cities and countries helped reduce the spread of coronaviruses and other respiratory pathogens. that’s why, Cases of being diagnosed with the flu or syncytial virus, which causes bronchiolitis and colds, have fallen sharply.

In 2023, it returns to very similar dynamics to pre-pandemic, but the spread of the coronavirus persists. Coronavirus still kills: Countries report 3,700 deaths between 26 June and 23 JulyAccording to reports, World Health Organization (WHO).

Although it is no longer declared a health emergency of international concern, “COVID-19 disease remains a major threat”, Considering the UN agency, and last Thursday asked governments not to dismantle infrastructure built to deal with the pandemic.

Bronchiolitis is a respiratory infection that occurs most often in autumn and winter, especially affecting children under 1 year old/document

“Coronavirus has become almost a pandemic. We are in a transition period from a pandemic to an epidemic. Although there are deaths every week, the intensity of the deaths is not as high when people are not vaccinated and are not exposed to the virus for the first time. Most people today have mixed immunity.Because a large proportion of people are already naturally infected and also vaccinated,” he told database doctor Sylvia Gonzalez AyalaPresident of the Argentine Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SAIP)

“Cases of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus appeared earlier in the year. Influenza cases also started to increase in Argentina. Then there was a third increase in Covid-19 cases. Each time the coronavirus spread at a lower level,” he added .

“During the cooler months, respiratory viruses tend to spread. It’s part of the natural competition to see who dominates, Irrelevant to human biological problems“Gonzalez Ayala explained. In other words, the change in the order of virus transmission does not mean that people’s immune systems have been damaged or weakened due to the increased social distance caused by the epidemic.

According to reports, the entire South American pan american health organizationAlready in May, influenza virus was circulating earlier and syncytial virus activity had increased. The same thing happened in the northern hemisphere last fall.

In 2023, Argentina will report 117,836 cases of bronchiolitis (Getty Images)

In Argentina, cases of bronchiolitis started to increase in the second week of March. Then, the week of April 16 to May 21 saw an acceleration of the case curve and a large increase in hospitalizations. According to statistics, since the end of May, the transaction volume has decreased. National Ministry of Health Epidemiological Bulletin.

The bronchiolitis season moved 2 to 6 weeks earlier than in most years before the pandemic. A total of 117,836 cases of bronchiolitis were reported, with a cumulative incidence rate of 8,076.9 cases per 100,000 residents. “There is no indication that this year’s cases are worse than in previous years,” he told reporters. database doctor Analia de CristofanoFrom the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases in charge of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at the Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires

As for seasonal flu, the number of cases exceeds that of syncytial virus and coronavirus. Cases increased in the first two weeks of January. Later, they decreased, but there was a peak between the second week of April and the first week of June. A total of 531,596 flu cases have been registered this year. More than half of the reported patients were affected by the influenza A(H3N2) and influenza A(H1N1) viruses, which were responsible for the 2009 pandemic.

In Argentina, 288 people have died from the virus this year.While only 49 people died from influenza, 13 from syncytial virus and 11 from other respiratory viruses/files

As of mid-July, the cumulative number of new crown cases in Argentina is much lower than the number of cases recorded in the same period in 2021 and 2022. The number of deaths showed the same trend. This year, there have been 85,280 confirmed cases and 294 deaths.

The difference from the previous two years is significant. Based on date of onset, there will be more than 4.1 million cases and 71,242 deaths in 2021. In 2022, when movement restrictions are no longer in place, the number of cases exceeds 4 million and the death toll rises to 12,655. Advances in vaccine availability mean that fewer people become seriously ill and die.

“We started 2023 with more than 37,000 COVID-19 cases in the first week. Then in July, their numbers dropped to less than 500 a week,” he said. Jorge AliagaPhD in Physics Hullingham National UniversityLocated in the province of Buenos Aires, official data are analyzed weekly.

“This is the last entry in the Omicron variant lineage. The significant shift in the COVID-19 case curve is the entry of coronavirus variants and sublineages, not the season of the year,” Aliaga said.

Most people have mixed immunity.Because a large part of the population already has natural infections and is vaccinated/documented

The number of COVID-19 cases increased slightly in the second half of June, according to the state health department. “We’ve been pretty quiet about the pandemic, but there’s been an increase in boarding schools recently. Generally, they’re people with comorbidities,” he said. From Cristofano.

Even when running at low levels, Today, the death toll from coronavirus is higher than that from respiratory syncytial disease and influenza. In 2023, 288 people will die from the new crown virus in Argentina. While only 49 people died from influenza, 13 died from syncytial virus and 11 from other respiratory viruses.

There are also cases of death due to co-infection. According to the Ministry of Health, a total of 4 deaths were detected due to influenza and new coronavirus, 1 death due to influenza and syncytial virus, 1 death due to new coronavirus and syncytial virus, 1 death due to new coronavirus and another respiratory virus, 1 Cases died from syncytial virus and another respiratory virus. Analysis by Dr. Aliaga.

“Covid-19 cases are gradually decreasing. This year is the peak period of bronchiolitis and hospitalization, and the number of days on the ventilator is also higher. As for the flu, the cases are more severe among young people,” he said. Gabriel BattistellaDeputy Minister of Primary Care Department of Health, City of Buenos Aires.

for Vaccines are available to prevent COVID-19 infection and influenza. With respect to bronchiolitis, it is recommended to maintain breastfeeding, follow the national vaccination calendar, and keep children away from cigarette smoke or braziers or wood stoves.

It is also recommended to clean pacifiers, toys, and surfaces on which babies change diapers or prepare food frequently with soap and water. Children and cohabitants should wash their hands frequently with soap and water. Permanent cross ventilation for indoor environments It works not only for bronchiolitis, but also for flu and COVID-19.

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