The legacy of the doctor Pedro Escudero, creator of the first National Institute of Nutrition of Argentina in the thirties, it continues in force through its avant-garde guidelines. He was a doctor who gave scientific recognition to nutrition and I create the “four rules of Squire” or “four laws of food“:
- Quality Law: must be complete providing all 5 fundamental nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
- Law of Quantity: all feeding must cover the caloric needs (that is, energy) of each individual and for this it is necessary to take into account the energy balance (the amount we eat and the amount we spend). “Caloric needs must be covered, as well as sufficient macro and micro nutrients,” says the nutritionist, Aldo cuneo of the Center for Metabolic Research (CINME). “You can have a complete but insufficient diet, for example, in the case of a hypocaloric diet, since it does not have the necessary calories. The opposite example would be having an excess of calories, as is the case with obesity”Says Cuneo.
- Law of Harmony: is the proportionality relation (Balance) between the different nutrients (hydrates, proteins and fats). “An adequate proportion of nutrients must be consumed: between 55% and 60% of carbohydrates, 15% or 20% of proteins and 25% to 30% of fats”, explains the nutritionist and adds: “You can have a diet sufficient and complete, but unharmonious, with more calories than carbohydrates, for example “.
- Adequacy Law: feeding must be adapt to each person, their tastes and habits, their socioeconomic situation and the disease / s they may have. “You have to accommodate the diet depending on each person: their cultural aspects, habits, at the biological moment (children, pregnant women, athletes),” he says.
Cuneo especially mentions the case of people who follow a diet vegetarian or vegan, since the contribution of vitamins and minerals must be taken care of. “Iron, calcium, vitamin B12 and folic acid are vitamins and minerals that are difficult to find in the plant world. It must be supplemented with cereals, legumes, seeds to comply with all laws and have a healthy diet ”, warns the nutritionist.
“There is more information now than before, but vegetarians used to be anemic. Iron is not easy to obtain in plants and is not used enough, as well as calcium. If you do not have an adequate food plan, it can become an incomplete diet and generate some deficiency ”, reflects Cuneo.