Spanish Flu: Skeletons reveal clues about victims – 10/13/2023 – Science

Influenza usually kills young, old and old. Aesop brought the 1918 virus to life, but we tell history: ele matou pessoas young and all arrived on time for those terrible moments or chronic conditions.

Doctors at the time reported that among those who were not yet in the prime of life, their health and youth were not protected: the virus was indiscriminate and killed at least 50 million people, between 1.3% and 3% of the world’s population. In comparison, Covid-19 killed 0.09% of the population.

But an article published at the Second Exposition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (9) challenges this continuing narrative. Using skeletal evidence from people who died before 1918, researchers report that people with chronic diseases or nutritional deficiencies were more likely to die than those without these conditions, regardless of their condition.

The 1918 virus did kill young people, but, the article points out, this was no exception, as contagions would have killed Freges and Dornts more quickly.

The article’s author, anthropologist Sharon DeWitt of the University of Colorado, Boulder, said her message was clear: “We should never assume that any non-accidental cause of death is indiscriminate.”

J. Alex Navarro, an influenza pandemic historian at the University of Michigan, said analyzing the two skeletons is “a fascinating article and a very interesting way to study this question.”

The article’s lead author, anthropologist Amanda Wissler of McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, said she was concerned that the 1918 virus only killed young people if they had pre-existing medical conditions. Interested in what people and healthy people say. At the time, there were no antibiotics or vaccines against the disease in infants, and tuberculosis was widespread among young people.

However, how the flu kills is a mystery, fueling speculation that healthy pythons do not equate to protection. The mortality curve is unusual and has a W format. Normally, the mortality curve has a U-format, indicating that infants and the elderly with immature immune systems have higher mortality rates.

OW emerged in 1918 as a cause of mortality in people between 20 and 40 years of age, as well as in infants and the elderly. This seems to indicate that young people are extremely vulnerable, and according to many contemporary accounts, it does not matter whether they are sick or chronically ill. Influenza is an equal opportunity killer.

In one story, noted pathologist Colonel Victor Vaughn describes a dinner at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. He revealed that he saw “hundreds of young men in their native uniforms entering the infirmary in groups of ten or more.” Na manhã seguinte, accrecentou, “The bodies were piled like lenha around the infirmary.”

The pandemic, he said, “is charging two higher prices, not including soldiers or civilians, and raising red flags in the face of science.”

Wiesler and DeWitt conducted similar research on the Black Death, and they found a way to test hypotheses about young people. When people have ongoing illnesses such as tuberculosis or cancer, or other stressors such as nutritional deficiencies, their cinnamon bones can become smaller.

Peter Palese, an influenza expert at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, said that trying to support vulnerability by making these mistakes is a “pretty legitimate” approach.

The researchers used skeletons from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. He collected the remains of 3,000 people, kept in large drawers in a huge room, including each person’s name, identity of the deceased and death data.

Wiesler said he treated the remains of 81 people between the ages of 18 and 80 who died during the epidemic with “great respect” as he examined them. Vinte e 6 of them Tinham are between 20 and 40 years old.

For comparison, researchers will examine the lives of 288 people who died before the pandemic.

The results were clear: Those whose children showed vulnerability when infected – young or old – were the most vulnerable over a long period of time. Many healthy people also die, but those without chronic disease have a much greater chance of dying.

That makes sense, said Arnold Monto, a public health researcher and professor emeritus at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. But secondly, the new study makes “an interesting observation” that these skeletons were not a random sample of the population, making it difficult to specify the cliff they believed to be fragile.

“We’re not used to the fact that young people are dying,” or that it happened so frequently during the 1918 pandemic, Monto said.

Palles said there is a reasonable explanation for the W-shaped mortality curve of the 1918 flu. Secondly, it means that people over the age of 30 or 40 may have been exposed to similar viruses, thus providing some protection. Young people haven’t been exposed to it yet.

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