This week, the National Ministry of Health issued Announcement No. 39, which details statistics, treatment, prevention and public policies related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Infections can be caused by parasites, viruses, or bacteria. The most common are: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), genital herpes, trichomoniasis, and hepatitis B and C.
As health professionals explain, STIs can be spread in three ways: first, through sexual intercourse without a condom, through contact with semen, pre-ejaculation fluid, vaginal fluid or blood. Secondly, it can also be transmitted through contact with blood or sharing sharp objects. Third, they can become infected from fluids present during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
In this sense, the report ministry of health The country has shown an increase in sexually transmitted infection cases following a decline in the Covid-19 pandemic.
Put it this way: “Since 2010, the incidence of syphilis has increased steadily nationwide, with very significant growth over the past five years, reaching a peak in 2019, with 56.1 people infected with syphilis per 100,000 male and female residents. In 2020, the incidence of syphilis dropped significantly. “After a decrease, with 23.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, an increase started in 2021, reaching 26.5 per 100,000 inhabitants,” they noted in the National Health Portfolio.
Regarding syphilis, they noted: “The youngest age group, those between 15 and 24 years of age, continues to show the highest values and largest increases in notification and positivity rates, except for HIV (at older ages).”
Regarding HIV, they note: “Over the past five years, there have been an average of 5,300 new cases diagnosed per year. Comparing the average rates between the periods 2011-2015 and 2017-2021, a decrease of 35% can be seen: a decrease of 33% among men , women fell by nearly 40%.”
“In the past three years, the median age at which cis women became infected with HIV was 35 years, 34 years for trans men, 32 years for cis men, and 30 years for trans women. In addition to cis men, in Age at diagnosis increased in other groups,” they explained.
In 2021, HIV and syphilis cases in the province of Entre Rios accounted for 3.1% of the country’s total population and 2.1% of diagnosed cases.
Meanwhile, the province of Entre Rios accounts for 38.8% of late-stage cases.
The bulletin details the evolution of HIV cases: “Comparing the three-year periods 2011-2013 and 2019-2021, the HIV infection rate fell by 43%: from 17.5 to 9.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Only in Formosa (80%) and Jujuy (61%) provinces have seen increases that may be due not only to the incidence of infections but also to improvements in the supply of tests and their reporting.”
As for the province of Entre Rios, the report showed a 53% drop in rates, exceeding the national average of 43%.
The province has an HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention plan, which relies on the Entre Rios Provincial Ministry of Health. Through this space we seek to prevent further cases, coordinate actions with educational institutions and contribute to the inclusion of people living with HIV.
For this purpose, they carry out free tests for syphilis, hepatitis B and C and HIV every Tuesday to Friday from 7:30 to 9:30 at the Provincial Epidemiological Laboratory (located at 235 Santa Fe Street, Paraná), and at different health centers or hospitals across the province.
Analysis does not require fasting or going to work.
In conversation oneCamila Dappen, obstetrics graduate of the National University of Entre Rios, explains that the most common sexually transmitted infections are usually: syphilis, HPV and trichomoniasis.
“They are contagious processes that are very easy to contract if we don’t take the necessary precautions every time we have sex. “This is a health issue that concerns us all. There is a wide age range and I don’t think certain infections are more common at certain ages. ” said Dapen, who works at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital of San Roque, capital of Entre Rios province.
Regarding the treatment to be carried out, the professional trained in sexual and reproductive health explained: “Treatment depends on the type of microorganism that caused the infection. But in most cases they are short-term treatments, and if follow-up controls show that the infection has resolved, There is no need to repeat it.”
He then noted: “The only situation where life-long medication is required is in those diagnosed with HIV. Regardless, it is important to clarify that during this type of virus or any other infection, if you follow the instructions of a health professional By following the treatment provided, you can have a safe and infection-free sex life.”
When asked about prevention methods, Dapen explained: “The only way to prevent sexually transmitted infections is to use condoms. Other available contraceptive methods only prevent pregnancy, but barrier methods (whether female, male or latex condoms) are the only ones that prevent transmission. The important thing is to use it throughout your sexual encounter, every time. “
“In the meantime, it’s very important for people with uteruses to have annual check-ups to assess for any type of STI through blood tests, Pap smears and colposcopy because that’s the only way .diagnose them,” he said.
Finally, he stressed: “The importance of complying with Law No. 26,150 on the National Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programme, which has been in force since 2006 and which, to this day, is not complied with in all institutions or at all levels of education in order to be able to understand the different sexually transmitted infections and preventing them.”
“In health centers and hospitals, condoms and lubricants are free and can be requested without showing an order signed by a professional,” he recalled in the conversation. one.
Although laboratory testing is recommended, it is necessary to mention the most common symptom of the most common sexually transmitted infections: discharge
Penile discharge (green, yellow, or white), vaginal discharge (green, yellow, or white, or lumpy and/or bad-smelling), or anal discharge (green, yellow, or white). Another symptom may be the presence of painful or painless wounds, warts, or sores. On the penis, in the scrotum (above the testicles), or around the vulva. Likewise, you may experience a burning sensation when you urinate, itching in your genitals, or pain in your lower abdomen.
In any case, medical consultation with a health professional is recommended.