There are 70 vaccines against the coronavirus in development around the world, and three of them are already being tested in human trials, as reported by the World Health Organization, while the drug manufacturers are quick to find a cure for the pathogen to mortal.
The most advanced in the clinical process is an experimental vaccine developed by the company Tiresome Biologics Inc (listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange) and the Institute of Biotechnology, Beijingthat is already in phase 2.
The other two that are being tested in human treatments are developed separately by the u.s. pharmaceutical Modern Inc. and Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc., according to a WHO document.
It is moving forward at an unprecedented speed in the development of vaccines, as it seems unlikely that the pathogen infectious to be removed only with containment measures. The pharmaceutical industry is expected to reduce the time it takes for a vaccine to reach the market, usually about 10 or 15 years, until the next year.
Even, there is talk of a possible arrival for this year. Sarah Gilbert, professor of vacunología of the University of Oxford, working on a vaccine against the coronavirus which could be ready for public use for the fall european (September), the newspaper reported in london The Times. “That’s hardly possible if everything goes perfectly. We have to go by that. No one can give you guarantees, no one can promise that it will work and no one can give a definitive date, but we have to do everything we can as fast as we can”, said the scientist in an interview with the british newspaper.
The group it has already developed a first version of the vaccine, which will be ready to enter clinical trials in two weeks. For Gilbert, your vaccine has an 80 percent chance of success. For a vaccine to be launched in September, would have to manufacture millions of doses even before these studies are concluded. Gilbert wants his Government and Governments around the world invest hundreds of millions for this to happen, something that they have been reluctant to do in the past.
“Vaccines do not receive enough investment. Are the health intervention more cost-effective, but are often overlooked. Many of us have been saying for years that we need more vaccines against these pathogens in outbreaks, and we need to be able to move more quickly when there is a new pandemic,” he insisted.
The COVID-19 already killed more than 115. 000 people according to the Johns Hopkins University, which manages the data center more reliable since the wake of the pandemic.
The drug manufacturers, large and small, have been launched to try to develop a vaccine, which would be the most effective way to contain the virus. Pharmaceutical giants such as Pfizer Inc. and Sanofi are candidates for the vaccine in the preclinical stagesaccording to the document of the WHO.
CanSino said last month it received regulatory approval in china to begin testing its vaccine in humans. The Modern company, with headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who has never released a product, received in march the regulatory approval to move quickly to human trials, skipping the years of animal testing that are the norm in the development of vaccines. Inovio began human trials last week.
How do vaccines work?
The first time a virus enters a body, the body takes weeks to produce antibodies and other defense mechanisms to fight it. This gives the virus a long time to replicate and make people sick. However, the immune system has memory. If the body recognizes a virus, you can quickly activate their defenses against the invader and neutralize it before it develops an infection.
This is the idea behind vaccines: give the body a chance to build defenses against a virus that can be exposed in the future. Not all vaccines produce the same level of preparation immune (the stronger is the immune response to initial, the better the shot), but it is still better to be a little prepared than not to be for nothing.
The traditional way to develop a vaccine is inyectarles patients inactivated virus. These viruses do not get sick, but once the immune system is exposed to the virus, “dead”, you already have the tools to combat it in the future, if necessary.
Unfortunately, it is very complicated to grow a new virus on an industrial scale and, once that is accomplished, the process itself is slow, difficult and can be risky. For example, the flu vaccine occurs when inyectarles the virus in millions of chicken eggs. The process takes four months. In addition, when working with a virus that has no medication or vaccine to combat it, it is safer to not make it grow in large quantities for fear of leaking out by accident and make the situation worse.
With the coronavirus, transforming the time into a matter of life or death, nearly 50 public and private laboratories are using new methods, safer, and faster to produce a vaccine against this virus.
(With information from Bloomberg and AP)