Once all restrictions Coronavirus diseasenow at-risk populations must make their own decisions try to avoidthe farther the better, virus infection.The document issued by the Ministry of Health in July last year is entitled “About Vaccination Prevention of Influenza and COVID-19 in Spain 2023-2024 season”, which specifies the situation as of today vaccine Can fight the virus in our country Suitable for autumn and winter seasons.
“The purpose of vaccination against COVID-19 is to strengthen the more people vulnerable And health and social health staff To reduce morbidity and mortality from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the impact of the disease on health and social health care capacity.Taking into account the current epidemiological situation Coronavirus disease, it is recommended to vaccinate the following target groups in autumn and winter (2023-2024). It is not recommended to vaccinate children and adults who do not belong to the target population”, specifying the vaccination plan and registration report prepared and approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission documents. Public Health Committee.
Who should be vaccinated
As a result, there is “a greater risk of complications or serious illness from exposure to these infections,” the health department advises Influenza and COVID-19 Vaccination Administration Five major demographic groups:
1. people from over 60 years old
2. people under 60 years old Has the following risk profile:
– Diabetes and Cushing’s syndrome
– Morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 in adults, BMI ≥ 35 in adolescents, and ≥ 3 SD in children)
– Chronic cardiovascular, neurological, or respiratory disease, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, and asthma
– Chronic kidney disease and nephrotic syndrome
– Hemoglobinopathies and anemia or hemophilia, other coagulation disorders and chronic bleeding disorders, and recipients of blood products and multiple transfusions
– Asplenia or severe splenic dysfunction
– Chronic liver disease, including chronic alcoholism
– Severe neuromuscular disease
– Immunosuppression (including primary immunodeficiency and immunodeficiency caused by HIV infection or drugs, and in transplant recipients1 and complement deficiency)
– Cancer and hematologic malignancies
– Cerebrospinal fluid fistula and cochlear implant or awaiting
– celiac disease
– Chronic inflammatory disease
– Disorders and diseases leading to cognitive impairment: Down syndrome, dementia, etc.
3. 5 years old or older inmates in nursing homes and centers for the disabled, and other long-term inmates and residents of closed institutions.
4. Pregnancy Women in any trimester of pregnancy and puerperium (up to 6 months postpartum and not vaccinated during pregnancy).
5. people living with someone who is highly immunosuppressed: generally refers to hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, solid organ transplantation, chronic renal failure, HIV infection with low CD4 count (<200 cells/ml), certain primary immunodeficiencies), and patients receiving certain immunosuppressive treatments. Cohabitants of persons with other high-risk and critical illnesses as defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 may also be included.
Likewise, “in order to reduce the impact and maintenance of critical and essential services in the community”, they also recommend that they Staff in public and private health and social health centers (sanitary and non-sanitary, except for students who are advised to only get the flu shot); and people who work basic public serviceswith particular emphasis on groupings of national security forces and agencies (with national, regional or local dependencies), firefighters and civil protection.
Vaccines currently available in Spain
Regarding the vaccines to be administered, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) issued a joint statement last June, COVID-19 Vaccine Composition Update New variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such as “Eris, recent.In it they recommend that a vaccine that can be administered both as a booster dose and as a primary vaccination Monovalent and XBB subvariants The failure of the Omicron strain means that the bivalent strain is discarded along with the original strain that is no longer in circulation.
“It hasn’t been approved yet. To date there are no vaccines that meet these requirementsalthough they are expected to be authorized before the start of the 2023-2024 season,” said the above-mentioned document on influenza and COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.
“To date, no vaccines meeting these requirements have been approved”
Therefore, in Spain, there are currently available vaccines mRNA (messenger RNA) Original Comirnaty/Ómicron BA.4-5, Original Spikevax/Ómicron BA.1 and Original Spikevax/Ómicron BA.4-5; and those Recombinant protein VidPrevtyn and Bimervax is a Spanish vaccine developed with public funding which, contrary to the recommendations of EMA and ECDC, is not monovalent for new variants (in addition, it is suitable for the following populations) previously vaccinated mRNA vaccines such as Comirnaty and Spikevax).
“Vaccination against COVID-19 will be carried out Best to use new adapted vaccines. If the epidemiological situation requires it and a suitable vaccine is not yet available, the available vaccine will be used. “
All vaccines listed above (except Bimer vaccine), as well as the adenovirus vector vaccines Vaxzevria and Jcovden (Janssen vaccine) and Nuvaxovid (another recombinant protein such as VidPrevtyn and Bimervax), which are not available in Spain, are recognized by world regulators as Prevent serious illness, hospitalization and death.
“It will be interesting to see how the two vaccine technologies are distributed and used throughout September”
However, remember Sanida, This protection against the virus wears off over time As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 emerge, here’s why it’s advised Use unit price Not yet available in Spain. Bao WensenA retired family physician reported that Pfizer-BioNTech The application process for its improved monovalent vaccine Omicron XBB.1.5 started in June. “My impression is that modern It’s a little late. Two days ago, they presented the initial results of the modified monovalent vaccine,” he added.
“Throughout September we will have more information and Logistics and availability of different vaccines. It’s also interesting how the two technologies are distributed and used: messenger RNAThe adenovirus vaccine became almost exclusive after failing due to adverse reactions to the adenovirus vaccine and the low efficacy of the Chinese-designed protein; and those Recombinant protein We already had VidPrevtyn and Spanish Bimervax, but not as suggested for the Ómicron variant,” he said.
Advice for those about to be vaccinated
Therefore, given that vaccination recommendations against COVID-19 “may be Varies according to epidemiological situationand “People have high immunity The effectiveness of vaccines against COVID-19 infection decreases over time due to vaccination and/or previous infection, and respiratory viruses tend to circulate more and cause pathology in autumn and winter”, Department of Health for the upcoming 2023 A series of proposals have been put forward – 2024 season:
– Among those who mRNA vaccine contraindications There are existing protein vaccines available against COVID-19.
– will be given a single dose of the flu vaccine, and Single-dose COVID-19 vaccine.People with severe immunosuppression may also need Extra dose of COVID-19 vaccine Depending on the epidemiological situation (at least 5 months apart). For children under 5 years of age who are severely immunosuppressed, two doses of the available vaccine can be given.
– Vaccination against COVID-19 is recommended for the target population regardless of the number of previous doses or even no previous vaccination 5 months from last dose or since the last infection.
– Currently, vaccination against COVID-19 is not justified given the epidemiological situation and acquired immunity in the population people who do not belong to the target group as above.
– The importance of vaccinations People at higher risk of infection or COVID-19 and severe flu. Health personnel should advise compliance with these vaccination protocols.
– recommend joint managementVaccines against COVID-19 and the flu. In addition, these vaccines can also be administered in combination with other vaccines.Existing publications indicate No difference observed in immune response between the two vaccines After its joint or separate administration or during its effectiveness. With regard to safety, no significant differences were observed in terms of local and systemic reactogenicity”, they state on the last point.