Professionals stress that early consultation is always crucial for thyroid lesions.
Anaïs Ramirez BenitezEndocrinology, metabolism and internal medicine experts mentioned that functional lesions of the thyroid gland are Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism. The doctor described the cause, the treatment and the need for adequate and timely treatment from a specialist.
he hypothyroidism This means that the production of thyroid hormones decreases, so the body develops a deficiency of these hormones. This can be the case with a complete deficiency, such as congenitally lacking a thyroid or after a thyroidectomy. But some hypothyroidism is not a complete deficiency, but a partial deficiency of thyroid hormone, which occurs in areas of iodine-deficient countries and due to autoimmune diseases, which are two main reasons. In my country, autoimmune diseases are the main cause of thyroid dysfunction, including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
For hypothyroidism, the symptoms you should expect are Tiredness, weakness, unexplained weight gain, and constant levels of physical activity and nutrition.
When hypothyroidism is more severe, voice changes, tongue growth (macroglossia) and constipation (which is a very important symptom), may occur, as well as changes in menstrual rhythm. Edema also begins to appear, as weight gain is due not only to the accumulation of fatty tissue, but also to the accumulation of fluid. The patient begins to develop what is called myxedema, which occurs mainly in the face, eyelid area, hands, feet, and in general. wake up swollen
As for thinking, patients will become slower and have less reasoning ability, for example, if they are children or adolescents, their grades in school may decline due to reduced concentration. Patients may also suffer from anemia, which itself can affect brain function and lead to slowed thinking.
Hypothyroidism can appear at any age.But it is more common in middle-aged women and is one of the most common endocrine pathologies. Another symptom that is common in children and teens, but also occurs in adults, is a growth in the neck called a goiter. If they notice thyroid growth that is associated or not with these mentioned symptoms, then this may lead them to think that hypothyroidism is present. These indicator symptoms occur when hypothyroidism is already clinical and significant, but subclinical or mild hypothyroidism may also be present and symptoms may be absent or minimal. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more difficult to diagnose, relying mainly on laboratory diagnosis, but does not always require treatment.
Regarding treatment, it is important to know that patients with hypothyroidism It can be treated with a drug called levothyroxine, or T4, and surgery is not an option.
Experts point out that autoimmune diseases have a genetic burden and it is best to ask people who have relatives with autoimmune thyroid disease to get tested.
on the other side we have Hyperthyroidism, another type of thyroid dysfunction, oversecretion of thyroid hormone, it is more common to have symptoms from the start. These include unexplained weight loss, small but persistent tremors in the hands, heart palpitations, and possibly bowel changes such as diarrhea or excessive bowel movements. It can also cause insomnia, nervousness, crying easily, the patient begins to become more emotionally sensitive, and menstrual rhythm disturbances.
In general, treatment of hyperthyroidism works very well, A drug called methimazole is used first to improve the patient’s symptoms, so early counseling is important. There are also cases of subclinical hyperthyroidism often associated with thyroid nodules, in which cases the diagnosis is sometimes difficult and more likely to be found incidentally. “It is very important to consult an endocrinologist as not all cases are treated. Drugs for hyperthyroidism have some side effects, it can affect the liver or the defenses, so it is important to be aware of who is prescribed and who is not .”
When it is clinical hyperthyroidism, it can be treated and there are options, not only drug treatment, surgery treatment and radioactive iodine treatment. “So with hyperthyroidism we have three treatment options, but consultation is very important. The endocrinologist will guide the patient to the most appropriate treatment”.