What is it and how can it be prevented?

this lung are the two organs of the chest, composed of Adventitia (pleura) contains numerous bronchi (through which air passes) and thousands of alveoli (small sac) when a healthy person breathes, it is filled with air, allowing oxygen to enter the blood and expelling carbon dioxide.

this pneumonia (or pneumonia) is an infection affecting the alveoli and can be segmental (affecting one sector) or total, unilateral or bilateral (both lungs). The alveoli become inflamed and fill with mucus or pus, making it difficult for air to get in (dyspnea) and restricting oxygen from getting into the blood (hypoxemia). “This pathology can be caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi of different aggressiveness”explain Dr Valeria Hagee, OSPEDYC National Medical Director.

The disease is the leading single cause of infant death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. In 2019, it killed 740,180 children under 5 years of age, accounting for 14% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, and 22% of all deaths of children aged 1 to 5 years. In turn, 20% to 30% of cases necessitated hospitalization and 9% required intensive care.

The clinical manifestations of pneumonia may be more severe at a certain age -Children and the elderly-due to the presence of previous diseases (immunodeficiency, asthma, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.), due to the virulence of the causative bacteria and due to the appearance of some of its complications.

“Typically, pneumonia develops acutely (hours or days) followed by cold, pharyngitis, or bronchitis. Symptoms and signs range from mild to severe and include dry or catarrhal cough (mucous or purulent cough) ), fever, chest pain, and mild to severe difficulty breathing (dyspnea). detailed professional.

Complications that aggravate the prognosis of pneumonia include: Pleural effusion or empyema (fluid or pus in the pleura), pneumothorax (pleural rupture), Bacteremia (bacteria entering the bloodstream) and infecting other organs, lung abscess (pus in the lung cavity) and Hypoxemia Have respiratory failure (pneumonia, the most common cause of death).

Likewise, there are other complementary measures of vaccination that can help prevent pneumonia:

  • handwashing Use soap and water or an alcohol-based sanitizer several times a day.
  • Maintain proper oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene can lead to oral colonization with pathogenic bacteria that, when microaspiration occurs, can infect the lungs and increase the risk of pneumonia.
  • Avoid contact with infected people, especially for the most vulnerable populations (the elderly, unvaccinated or chronically ill). Sick people should wear a mask, especially when in contact with children and the elderly.
  • Smoke-free and non-toxic. Smoking, smog, and environmental toxins prevent the lungs from using various defense mechanisms to ward off bacteria. Children are passive smokers for their parents. Prolonged exposure to toxic environmental or occupational substances (smoke, dust, fumes) can damage the lungs, block the bronchi, destroy the alveoli, and predispose to severe pneumonia.
  • Keep your immune system strong. Physical activity, a healthy eating plan, a healthy body weight, and enough sleep allow the defense system to function optimally and protect the body from infection.
  • ? Avoid bronchial aspiration. People with alcoholism, neurogenic dysphagia (CVA), or gastroesophageal reflux should take small amounts of solids and liquids, elevate the head of the bed, and do not abuse alcohol so that food, drink, or saliva can enter and infect the lungs (bronchial aspiration).
  • In the practice of surgery or planning, Fast for 8 hours or fluids for 2 hours before this to prevent aspiration during sedation or anesthesia.
  • due to a compromised or weakened immune system, Antibiotics may be used to prevent bacterial growth in the lungs (prophylactic treatment).

The drug is selected according to the microorganism causing the pneumonia. Consider the severity of the pneumonia, the most likely cause, and the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria in the area. After a correct diagnosis, specific medications are prescribed. Empiric therapy can be initiated without waiting for culture results (based on clinical and epidemiological data). If the bacteria and their susceptibility to the drug are detected in preliminary studies, definitive treatment is indicated.

“It is important to know that physicians are ideally placed to provide patients with effective treatments for each type of pneumonia. In any case, attention must be paid to prevention in order to avoid this pathology and its complications, which, despite treatment, can be life-threatening or leave sequelae”, Dr El Haj concludes.

Source link

Leave a Comment