interviewing Martha DeBile in W, Dr. Eduardo Calixto, PhD in Neuroscience from the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Postdoctoral fellow in Brain Physiology, University of Pittsburgh; author of The B-Side of Emotion, Love and Heartbreak in Your Brain, The Perfect Imperfect Brain, Into Your Brain, (URL: email@example.com // FB: Eduardo Calixto // TW: @ecalixto // IG: @dr.eduardo_calixto) The importance of managing drug use is explained.
● Chronopharmacology is the branch of pharmacology that focuses on the study of the optimal time to administer a drug and how it affects its effectiveness and how it interacts with the body’s biological rhythms, particularly circadian rhythms.
● Strive to maximize the effectiveness of the drug while minimizing side effects.
● Chronopharmacology believes that the human body has biological rhythms that affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Therefore, the correct timing of medication is crucial to obtain the best therapeutic effect.
● Chronopharmacology is critical to understanding how time affects drug response and how this can have a profound impact on medical practice and treatment optimization.
● If everything is rhythmic in nature, why not focus on and suggest a more consistent pattern of dosing that is both rhythmic and non-smooth?
● one biological rhythm It is a temporal change in a biological organic process or function that occurs periodically, with precise intervals between successive repetitions.
● Human cycles are 24 hours (circadian), less than 24 hours (hypercircadian: sleep, eat) and greater than 24 hours (infrared: menstrual cycle).
● Fun Fact: Levels of Drunkenness Alcohol 11:00 am Higher when filmed
● In the brain, the hypothalamus regulates various clocks in different tissues. Through light (retina, suprachiasmatic nucleus to cerebral cortex or light or light pathway) and NO light pathway (geniculate nucleus), the brain regulates the timetable of different tissues, thereby changing its genetic activity during the day.
Morning hormone release:
1. Cortisol (blood sugar elevation and immune modulation) 5-8 am.
2. Renin-angiotensin controls pressure and urine at 7 am.
3. Catecholamines (epinephrine, NA, DA) 5am-7am.
4. Increased blood coagulation.
5. Light, food, temperature, and social contact increase the release of GABA, serotonin, acetylcholine, and neurotensin. Neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin.
6. The immune response varies throughout the day, with T-CD4+ or helper lymphocytes peaking at 4:00 am. This finding suggests that, in some cases, immunosuppressive drugs should be administered at night to achieve adequate immunosuppression.
7. In humans, plasma protein concentrations are at their lowest during nighttime rest and peak in the morning. These changes were greater in older adults.
More heart attacks and bleeding in the morning (heart sounds, ischemia, hypercoagulable arrhythmias), including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular. High blood pressure and sudden changes in blood sugar.
Hormones are released at night:
8. Growth hormone in REM sleep.
9. Take melatonin after 6 p.m.
10. Release gastrin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
11. Histamine release increases bronchial reactivity
This means gastritis and ulcers get worse at night.
Asthma attacks and pulmonary edema are more complicated.
When should I take the medicine to achieve better results and reduce side effects?
paracetamol and ibuprofen
● some Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, to prevent and reduce pain and reduce fever There are more adverse effects in the morning because enzymes that metabolize them They are not present like in the afternoon.
● of Aspirin for pain relief and heart disease preventionhave side effects High blood pressure in the morning, low blood pressure in the evening. Therefore, if you suffer from high blood pressure, it is best to take it at night.
● of Diuretics remove water or make us urinate to lower blood pressure They are more efficient in the first few hours of the day because of the greater density of receptors.
● Medication gastritis as Omeprazole It is better to take it at night, because the stomach will produce more hydrochloric acid at night, which can prevent heartburn, gastritis and ulcers.
● of Cardioselective antihypertensives as Metoprolol, Atenolol suppression frequency Heart rate is better in the morning because there are more receptors Beta 2.
● Antihypertensive drugs and daily dose First thing in the morning is most effective.However, in Patients treated with two or more antihypertensive drugsandIt is best to take at least one medication in the afternoon or at bedtime to ensure adequate blood pressure control during sleep and the next morning.
● of Clomipramine is an antidepressant It is more effective when taken at noon, and the incidence of adverse reactions is lower because of faster absorption in the intestinal tract.
● Strength and duration of anesthesia Lidocaine Take it at 3:00 pm for the greatest effect, because elimination is slower at this time, so it is recommended to go to the dentist between 2 pm and 4 pm.
● Theophylline For example, Pulmene, used to increase the air in the bronchi, is more effective in treating asthma at night because the release of histamine is stronger after 6 pm.
● In order to reduce the accumulation of fat in the blood, especially cholesterol, it is best to take statins at night, because the liver synthesizes cholesterol after 8 o’clock in the evening.
● Effect Cisplatin is a medicine used to treat certain types of tumors or cancers that If used at night, there are fewer side effects because it is easily eliminated by the liver at this time.
high blood pressure and arrhythmias
● of verapamil In addition to being used to treat hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias, Drugs managed using chronopharmacology for the first timeit is recommended to take it at night, and to prolong the release time Because in the early morning, hormonal processes increase stress in the first place, they are avoided or cancelled.
● of heparin It is an anticoagulant used in patients with deep venous insufficiency to prevent the formation of blood clots and is better when given at night than when given in the morning because of its more efficient biotransformation by the liver and blood density Congeals more at the start of the day.