September 5, 1938, racial laws

Florence, September 5, 2023 – Eighty-five years have passed since the laws were passed in Italy. racial laws. This is a series of royal decrees that, from the summer to the autumn of 1938, September 5were signed by Benito Mussolini as head of government and then made public by King Vittorio Emmanuel III, all of which tend to legitimize the racist vision of the so-called “Jewish question“. They were abolished by Royal Decree-Laws No. 25 and 26 of January 20, 1944, issued during the Southern Kingdom, when the Italian government, led by Badoglio, moved to Brindisi after fleeing Rome. Racial laws

The first of the so-called “decrees of shame” refers to On September 5, 1938, the “Regulations on the Protection of the Race in the Fascist School” were created.and two days later, on September 7, a text was published establishing “Regulations against Foreign Jews”. Their content was first announced on September 18, 1938, in Benito Mussolini’s “Triste” on the occasion of his visit to the following month, the Grand Council of Fascism issued a “declaration of race”: it was adopted on October 6 and was subsequently adopted again by the state by royal decree-law from November 17, 1938. The so-called “racial laws” of fascism must also include the notorious “Manifesto of Race”, originally published anonymously in the “Giornale d’Italia” on July 15, 1938, under the title “Fascism and the Problems of Race”, then republished in the first issue of the “Defence of the Race” magazine. ‘ On August 5, 10 scientists signed. Who was Jewish

According to fascist law, a Jew was considered one who was born from: both Jewish parents, a Jew and a foreigner, from a Jewish mother in conditions of unknown paternity, or who, despite the presence of an Aryan parent, professed the Jewish religion. In 1939, by addition to the Royal Decree of November 1938, the figure of the so-called “Aryanized Jew” was introduced, to whom the racial laws applied with some exceptions and limitations. Prohibitions With the racial laws, which also abolished Italian citizenship granted to foreign Jews after 1919, a whole series of prohibitions for Jews came into force: marriages between Italians and Jews were not allowed, and Jews were forbidden to have servants of the Aryan race. they have at work. In addition, the laws provided for a ban on all public administrations and private companies of a public nature (banks and insurance companies) from employing Jews in them, a ban on moving to Italy for foreign Jews, a ban on practicing the profession of a notary and as a journalist, and severe restrictions on all so called intellectual professions, a ban on the enrollment of Jewish children who did not convert to Catholicism and did not live in areas where there were too few Jewish children to create Jewish schools, in public schools, a ban on secondary schools to take as textbooks works in which one way or another he participated in editing Jew. Jewish professors It was also ordered to set up special schools for Jewish children run by Jewish communities. Jewish teachers could only work in these schools. Finally, there were a number of restrictions from which the so-called Aryanized people were excluded: a ban on military service, acting as guardians of minors, owning companies declared to be of national defense interest, owning land or buildings. above a certain value. For all in the books of vital records, a mark was ordered on the status of the Jewish race. Flight of intellectuals Racial laws have dealt a death blow to the world of research and universities. In total, more than 300 teachers were purged by the Italians after the introduction of racial laws, not counting secondary school teachers, scientists, authors of banned textbooks, and many young graduates and researchers whose careers were nipped in the bud. Some of the Jewish scholars and intellectuals affected by the September 5 situation (especially in the field of education and teaching) emigrated abroad. Among them are personalities of the level of Emilio Segre, Bruno Pontecorvo, Franco Modigliani, Arnaldo Momigliano, Uberto Limentani, Humberto Cassuto, Carlo Foa, Amedeo Herlicka. Enrico Fermi and Luigi Bogliolo, whose wives were Jewish, also left Italy with them. Born today Michael Keaton Born September 5, 1951 in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania. The American actor turns 72 today. Born near Pittsburgh, the engineer’s son Michael John Douglas (that’s his real name) made his film debut in the mid-1970s, but it wasn’t until 1988 that Beetlejuice came to big success. He said: “A thing is a thing, not what is said about it.”

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