Dengue fever and pneumonia, two endemic diseases in Nicaragua, continue unabated, according to data from the Ministry of Health (Minsa). Last week (week 34), the country registered 3,638 suspected cases of dengue fever and 235 confirmed cases, an increase of 7% over the previous week; 1,335 cases of pneumonia, an increase of 14%.
The total number of dengue cases registered for the week of 21-27 August showed that 519 suspected cases were reported daily, while 33 confirmed cases were reported. In the previous week (33rd week), from August 14th to 20th, health authorities found 3,739 suspected cases and 219 confirmed cases, a 9% increase in positive cases compared to last week, which will be the 32nd week.
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Regarding pneumonia, 1,335 cases were reported this week, a 14% increase from 1,155 the previous week. These data are not shown in the Epidemiological Bulletin because Minsa has updated and published data through week 31 (including August 1-8).
As of the 31st week, the country had a total of 1,612 confirmed cases, 75,065 suspected cases of dengue fever, and 46,241 cases of pneumonia.But if you add the data from the 33rd and 34th weeks disclosed by the official media, the figure will rise to 82,492 suspected dengue cases; 2,066 confirmed cases, 48,731 pneumonia cases. All that remains is to include the data for week 32.
Nicaragua leads the way in Central America
In fact, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) stated that as of July 16, 2023 (weeks 1 to 28), a total of 127,631 dengue cases had been registered in the Isthmus of Central America and Mexico, with Nicaragua being the dengue-endemic country. Cumulative incidence was the highest, with 943 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It was followed by Belize, Panama and Honduras.
The regional agency explained that of the 127,631 dengue cases reported, 10,861 (or 8.5%) were laboratory-confirmed and 269 (or 0.21%) were classified as severe dengue. Likewise, data from PAHO registrations shows that Nicaragua has registered more than 75,000 suspected dengue cases so far in 2023, as of week 31, the most recent data available.
At the end of July last year, Minsha released Ministerial Resolution 373-2023The head of the entity, Martha Reyes, signed a document in which she resolves to lead the general public to intensify “action against dengue” between August and November to prevent the spread of the dengue virus and mosquitoes that transmit it” .
For epidemiologist Lionel Aguero, the resolution is just one measure to speed up the process of containment, but he noted, “If you don’t issue alerts on outbreaks, you won’t have all the available countries based on that.” Resources. The control and application of resolutions is paramount if they don’t stay on a piece of paper.”
He described that the resolution should be “a joint response of all government agencies in the private sector, otherwise you allow mosquito breeding grounds to exist and mosquito populations to increase on the one hand and try to control it on the other.” That’s why all state agencies and management There must be coherence between institutions (i.e. parliaments)”.
“The epidemic cannot be controlled”
According to the interpretation of epidemiologist Aguero, the reason why Nicaragua has the highest incidence of dengue fever cases in the region is because of the lack of measures to control or reduce the number of transmitting mosquitoes in the country. Aedes aegypti.
“This confirms that the outbreak has not been brought under control. It has not been brought under control because the epidemiology of the outbreak has not been done, the population has not been educated to participate in the control, and the work done by the Ministry of Health has been incomplete or inefficient. “Well, the outbreak should Get it under control within a period of no more than two months, otherwise the ultimate goal of controlling the epidemic will not be set as a national task, with all institutions involved,” Aguero said.
“We must remember that mosquitoes transmit not only dengue, but also yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro and Usutu,” the Nicaraguan expert stressed.
He immediately asserted that since this species of mosquito is commonly kept in homes, citizens can identify it by its darker color, white or silver spots on its legs, and white lines on its chest.
The Nicaraguan expert explained that the main symptoms of dengue fever are high fever lasting two to seven days, severe headache, bone, muscle and eye (behind the eyes) pain, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, skin erosions and rash.He also explained that there are some warning symptoms such as overtired, severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, sleepy, numbness, disturbed and bleeding gums, nose, Vomited, stool and Urine.
“When the fever subsides or goes away, you have to be careful because that’s one of the warning signs that we have to seek medical attention,” he said.
Regarding the recommendations, Aguero noted that yards and around the house should be checked to see if there are any containers (no matter how small) of clean water in which mosquitoes can lay their eggs, and if they are collected for drinking. Water recommended to cover the container.
The country also continues to see an increase in cases of pneumonia, a sudden lung infection caused by the pneumococcus bacterium, six serotypes or variants of which can bind to viruses such as influenza.Pneumonia leading to death in 2022, according to Minsa Health Map 513 Nicaraguans.
Epidemiologist Aguero believes that the increase in positive cases represents that the country is experiencing a “pneumonia epidemic”, and describes its symptoms as including high fever, chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath and expectoration.
He explained that people can become infected through “tiny droplets of saliva that are inhaled from another sick person, just like covid-19, influenza, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, that is, the same as respiratory transmission diseases.” From your breath It takes 1 to 3 days to feel unwell.”
He therefore made it clear that all precautionary measures left by Covid-19 must be put in place, mainly distancing measures.
- A physical distance of two meters between people.
- Wear a mask, especially if you are around sick people.
- Cover your cough with the inside of your elbow or a tissue to avoid spreading germs to others.
- If you become sick within 24 hours of starting antibiotic treatment, stay home or in hospital.
- Avoid crowds, that is, don’t go to crowded places, look for open places.
- Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 40 seconds.